- Antibacterial activity
- Bactericidal. Necessary concentration profile has not been described.
- Gram positive and gram negative.
- Aerobic and anaerobic activity
- Bacterial resistance
- Not a clinical concern. (topical and feed only)
- Contribution to (general) resistance in human organisms is a concern.
- Concentrations and doses
- No absorption when used topically.
- Toxicity Profile
- Very low order of toxicity based on current (non-systemic) uses.
Beneficial actions and effects
- disrupts cell wall and peptidoglycan synthesis
- gram positive and gram negatives.
Reistance (by bacteria)
- Changes biochemical pathways leading to cell wall synthesis
- Systemic use (rarely done) is associated with nephrotoxicity.
- Very little is absorbed orally
- Topical use has been associated with dermal allergy (human beings)
- Very low oral absorption
- Little is known about systemic pharmacokinetics. Has not been used systemically for 30 years.
- Topical use(including ophthalmic) associated with almost no absorption.
- Topical ointments (alone or in combination)
- Ophthalmic preparations (alone or in combination)
- Oral (feeds)
- Feed - increased weight gain, feed efficiency, Clostridial infections (necrotic enteritis)