Biomedical ontologies: a functional perspectiveDL Rubin, et al
"This article provides examples of how biomedical ontologies are and can be used in applications."
Developing the Animals in Context OntologySL Santamaria, et al
"This paper was published in the proceedings of the 2012 ICBO meeting in Graz, Austria."
Opossum or possum? Veterinary Medical Informatics Laboratory is developing a common vocabulary of termsB. Jones
Terminology DesiderataJJ Cimino
"Builders of medical informatics applications need controlled medical vocabularies to support their applications and it is to their advantage to use available standards. In order to do so, however, these standards need to address the requirements of their intended users."
The OBO Foundry: coordinated evolution of ontologies to support biomedical data integrationB Smith, et al
"The OBO Foundry promotes the development of well-formed, logically sound ontologies which are interoperable with other ontologies. This article describes the Foundry principles and provides guidelines for those who want to join in the effort."
Why is terminology so hard?AL Rector
"Despite years of work, no re-useable clinical terminology has yet been demonstrated in widespread use. This paper puts forward ten reasons why developing such terminologies is hard."


Your Master Problem List - Working FOR you or AGAINST you? [PPT Presentation]CVC - Kansas City 2016 (2016)JM Green
At the completion of this lecture, the attendee will be able to site one or more benefits to structure recording of diagnosis in a medical record, be able to recognize common problems with diagnosis lists in medical record systems and have an adequate understanding of how to begin implementing the AAHA Problem and Diagnostic Terms in their own system. (Also applies to AAEP PDT)
Your Master Problem List - Working FOR you or AGAINST you? [Written Notes]CVC - Kansas City 2016 (2016)JM Green
Core Table Structures in RF2 [PPT format]VTSL Journal Club (2013)Julie Green
This presentation introduces the core table structures in RF2 involved in using and displaying core and extension content in the browser. It also highlights changes from RF1 and aids in understanding the new mechanism for handling preferred designation of descriptions as well as how history is handled.
Enhancing the AAHA & AAEP Diagnostic SubsetsTalbot Symposium - AVMA Convention 2013 (2013)JR Wilcke
"This presentation describes the reasons for developing a new format for releasing the AAHA and AAEP Diagnostic Terms subsets of SNOMED, features of the new format, and information about its availability."
AAEP Diagnostic Terms: An Equine Subset of SNOMED-CT®Talbot Symposium - AVMA Convention (2012)SL Santamaria
Thoughts on the Third International Conference on Biomedical Ontology for the Association for Veterinary InformaticsAssociation for Veterinary Informatics (AVI) Webinar (2012)SL Santamaria
"This presentation describes the author's experiences while attending the ICBO meeting in Graz, Austria."
The Animal Names Subset of SNOMED CT®Talbot Symposium - AVMA Convention (2011)SL Santamaria
"This presentation describes the Animal Names Subset of SNOMED-CT. This subset includes common animal groupings, production classes and physiologic classes."
Implementing Standards - It takes a villageTalbot Symposium - AVMA Convention (2010)JM Green
Controlled medical terminologies offer the promise of progress in Veterinary Medicine. However, effective implementation is a collaborative project.
The Electronic Drug Label - Coming to an Information System Near YouTalbot Symposium - AVMA Convention (2010)SL Santamaria
Managing SNOMED in your system2nd AAHA Software Vendors Summit, Denver, CO (2009)JR Wilcke
SNOMED Core Structures2nd AAHA Software Vendors Summit, Denver, CO (2009)JR Wilcke
Terms list vs. SNOMED Subset2nd AAHA Software Vendors Summit, Denver, CO (2009)JR Wilcke
The Changing Face of TerminologyTalbot Symposium - AVMA Convention (2009)JM Green
Veterinary Adaptation of Snomed-CTTalbot Symposium - AVMA Convention (2009)JR Wilcke
Implementing SNOMED-CT in Veterinary Clinical SystemsLos Angeles, CA (2008)JR Wilcke
Managing SNOMED in your systemNAHLN Training Meeting (2004)JR Wilcke
SNOMED Core StructuresNAHLN Training Meeting (2004)JR Wilcke
Attributes (sanctioned and unsanctioned)AVHIMA, Denver, CO (2003)LP Livesay
Concept addition proceduresAVHIMA, Denver, CO (2003)LP Livesay
Conclusion. Questions and AnswersAVHIMA, Denver, CO (2003)LP Livesay
RechecksAVHIMA, Denver, CO (2003)LP Livesay
Taxonomy (Living Organisms revisited)AVHIMA, Denver, CO (2003)LP Livesay
Veterinary Informatics Standards Development and HarmonizationAVMA Stakeholders Meeting, Nashville, TN (2002)JR Wilcke
An Approach to Using Controlled-Vocabularies in Clinical Information SystemsTalbot Symposium, Boston, MA (2001)JR Wilcke and A Smith
Challenges and Opportunities of Using SNOMED in Veterinary MedicineVMDB / AVHIMA Medical Records Abstracting Workshop. Blacksburg, VA (2001)JR Wilcke
Conduits Between Anatomical Hierarchies in SNOMEDAmerican Association of Veterinary Anatomists, Boston, MA (2001)JR Wilcke, LP Livesay and LE Freeman
SNOMED for Clinical Records:Tools to facilitate implementationAVMA Stakeholders Meeting, Boston, MA (2001)JR Wilcke
SNOMED Usage Guide for Veterinary Systems: Saying what we want to sayAmerican Veterinary Hospital Information Managers Association, Boston MA (2001)JR Wilcke
SNOMED: Evaluating Performance for Summarizing Veterinary Cardiovascular FindingsTalbot Symposium, Salt Lake City, Utah (2000)JR Wilcke and AW Hahn
Core Table Structures in RF2 [PDF format] ()
Managing SNOMED in your systemWDIN Training Session 2009 ()JR Wilcke

Web Resources

LOINC online
Website for LOINC (
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
"The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) provides authoritative taxonomic information on animals, plants, fungi, and microbes. ITIS is the taxonomic source used as the basis for the selection of Linnaean classes in the NCBI Taxonomy to serve as superclasses of The Animals in Context Ontology (ACO) animal classes."
NCBO Bioportal
"The National Centers for Biomedical Computing (NCBO) Bioportal has a multi-ontology browser and additional resources for ontology development and reuse."
Ontology Development 101: A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology
"This paper by Natalya Noy and Deborah McGuinness contains an overview of why and how to build an ontology. The paper is available in PDF, Word and HTML format and in French, Russian, Spanish, and Brazilian Portugese from this link."
Protégé (Ontology Editor)
"Protégé is an open-source ontology editor freely available for download. This website contains information about Protégé, downloads, a Wiki and links discussion groups."
SNOMED CT® Document Library
"The documents listed on this page include formal specifications of SNOMED CT and guidance on use and implementation."
SNOMED CT® Resources
Index page of IHTSDO Resources regarding SNOMED CT®
SNOMED CT® Starter Guide
"The target audience for this Starter Guide includes people from various disciplines who may be involved at any point in the SNOMED CT information management cycle – from initial planning, clinical content definition and implementation through to use of the resulting clinical information"
SNOMED CT® Technical Implementation Guide
"Detailed specifications or release files and other IHTSDO standards, accompanied by guidance about various topics related to implementation of SNOMED CT."
SNOMED International Home
"IHTSDO is now SNOMED International, a not-for-profit association that develops and promotes use of SNOMED CT to support safe and effective health information exchange. SNOMED CT is a clinical terminology and is considered to be the most comprehensive, multilingual healthcare terminology in the world. "
SNOMED-CT® Licensing from the US National Library of Medicine
"This page contains information regarding obtaining a license to use SNOMED-CT in the US through the US National Library of Medicine."
The Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry
"The OBO Foundry is a collaborative group that has established principles for good ontology development. This website contains information about the OBO Foundry, a list of ontologies to download, and additional resources pertaining to OBO ontologies."
UCUM online
Website for UCUM (
Uses of ontologies in veterinary medicine
This link contains a recording of a presentation given by Suzanne Santamaria on 12/19/2012 for the NCBO Webinar Series. The presentation explores some of these current and developing uses of ontologies in veterinary medicine as well as some areas where ontologies have a role in the future.